It is largely understood that the ability to manage conflict situations creatively to result in constructive and effective outcomes is a standard requirement in nursing practice. The most common conflict management strategy was an emphasis on compromise and more than half of the nurses studied admitted to using only one mode of conflict management. Transformational leadership was found to be more popular and widely used than transactional style of leadership and the style of leadership also affected the conflict strategy selected. In case of mental health and psychiatric patients, conflict management and management of violent behaviours in patients are the major challenges.
Time Management and Best Nursing Practices
Thus the study mainly argued that conflict handling mode in head nurses is largely associated with the style of leadership and the overall conflict management approach that was based on compromise. Katz and Kirkland point out that violent behaviour in mental hospital wards is widespread although there may be differences in incidence and distribution. Their study suggested that are varying patterns to show the relation between staff behaviour, management styles, social organisation of the unit and the levels of violence.
The study suggests conclusively that, 'violence is a symptom of disorder not only in the biological and psychological field but also in the socio-cultural field' p. Violent behaviours in patients were found to be more frequent in wards where staff functions were unclear, where there were no predictable staff-meeting interaction or which had slackened or unstructured leadership or management approach.
The role of personality in transactional and transformational leadership has been examined by Bono and Judge Their study was based on meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and ratings on transformational and transactional leadership behaviours.
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The five factor model was used in the study and personality traits were related to 3 dimensions of transformational leadership namely idealized influence- inspirational motivation or charisma, intellectual stimulation, and individualised consideration and also to the 3 dimensions of transactional leadership namely contingent reward, management by exception-active and passive leadership.
Extraversion as a major personality trait has been found to be the most consistent correlate of transformational leadership and even charisma was closely related to this style of leadership. There is a growing need to understand the subtle personality traits and how these relate to the unobvious characteristics and determinants of transformational and transactional styles of leadership. In an earlier study, Judge and Bono have linked the personality traits from five factor model with that of transformational leadership patterns and behaviours.
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The personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness and Openness to Experience have been found to predict transformational leadership and are traits that are closely related to this particular leadership style. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were found to be unrelated to transformational leadership behaviours.
Judge and Bono further stated that 'transformational leadership behavior predicted a number of outcomes reflecting leader effectiveness, controlling for the effect of transactional leadership' ,p. Leadership styles also affect performance and not just personality patterns and behaviours. The overall performance of a unit has been critically examined by Bass et al assessing both transformational and transactional leadership styles. The authors ask how leadership styles and ratings from operating units can predict the subsequent performance of these units that operate under high stress and even considerable uncertainty.
In this study, the predictive relationships for transformational and transactional leadership styles for ratings of unit potency, cohesion and performance levels were calculated. The results indicated that both the leadership styles positively predicted unit performance suggesting that transactional and transformational styles of leadership may be both effective for improving performance of an entire nursing or clinical unit. Some studies have suggested that staff retention and job satisfaction are closely associated with transformational leadership styles Kleinman, Prenkert and Ehnfors measured organisational effectiveness in relation to transactional and transformational leadership in nursing management.
The relative 4. The result indicated that TA and TF leadership styles had low or significant connection with the organisational effectiveness at a hospital and the study did not support the perceived understanding that organisations and clinical settings exposed to higher levels of transformational or transaction leadership behaviours show better organisational effectiveness.
Conclusion: In this study we discussed various approaches to transformational and transactional leadership styles and behaviours and in the course of the discussion we showed the different views and perceptions on leadership styles. In general most of the studies discussed here suggest that transformational leadership is preferred and is the more positive form of leadership as it emphasises on individual power and charisma to change the surroundings and the situation. Transactional leadership on the other hand is comparatively easier form of leadership as it is not dependent on any unique personality pattern but is largely dependent on how an individual uses the situations to bring out efficient and positive consequences.
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However as Bono's studies suggest both the leadership styles may be equally related to personality patterns with openness and agreeableness being important traits of a transformational leader. Most studies discussed here seems to point out that leadership styles are closely related to change management, quality of care, work relations, job satisfaction and overall nursing practice.
This is also true in all other areas and services, including mental health wards where violence management of patients is a major challenge for head nurses. There are however few exceptional studies examined here that seem to argue that organisational effectiveness have little, no or uncertain relationship with leadership styles.
Recommendations: Following the discussions and evidential studies above, we suggest several moves for better services and improvement of leadership behaviours in the clinical settings keeping in mind the ethical implications. These can be given as follows: 1. Conducting interviews, using surveys and questionnaires to understand nurse attitudes and perceptions towards leadership styles 2. Performing personality tests to identify traits correlating with the different leadership styles to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the workforce 3. Having transformational and transactional leadership style training, education and analysis to make nursing staff suitable for handling crisis situations especially in mental health units 4.
Increasing awareness on leadership styles among and showing the importance or use of each leadership behaviour during crisis in hospitals and psychiatric wards 5. Others require learning leadership and management skills. It takes a certain personality trait that makes. Having effective leadership and management is essential for any health care facility to operate. Both leadership and management are an essential part to delivering quality healthcare to the patients that they serve.
The foundation to any facility is nursing which must be led by the best leadership and management available for its continued success. This is the key to helping that facility to achieve a high level of patient and employee satisfaction. Having adequate staffing for any facility is an.
Nursing Shortages and Nurse Turn-Over: Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management Nursing shortages and nurse turn-over is a growing issue among the nursing profession. The main reason for this growing problem seems to be dissatisfaction among nurses with some aspect of their job. Nursing leaders and managers play a vital role in job satisfaction and ultimately nurse retention. Through this paper, I will identify the roles of nursing leaders and managers and examine the different approaches. It is estimated that by. In this essay the. Role of Nurse Leader and Nurse Manager in Nursing Shortage and Turn-over During the recent years, the American Healthcare system is struggling with the issue of the nursing shortage and turnover.
It is important to understand the different leadership styles that are often found in the workplace, as well as their effects on the staff and those under their care. A leader of this type will try to ensure that the staff complies with rules by instituting a system of rewards and punishments. Those individuals who follow his or her instructions and achieve the set targets will be rewarded accordingly.
On the other hand, those who fail to obey and to reach the goals will be punished for their transgressions. This style is firmly focused on the supervision of subordinates, keeping the organization running smoothly and improving group performance. There is a keen interest in the work done by followers to find deviations. This leadership style is effective in managing a crisis and completing highly detailed projects. This style is leadership by example. They see the hard work from the top as well as the concern for their well-being.
They perform beyond all expectations because they put in more effort than usual.
They no longer put themselves first as they place more importance on what is best for the organization. Leaders provide a clear vision of the future that motivates staff members to exceed themselves. Old assumptions and traditions are questioned to come up with novel ideas for solving problems more effectively.
With this style, the team is encouraged to speak up and join in the decision-making process. The open communication makes all staff members feel that their voices matter. They are more concerned about the things that go on in the organization knowing that they can influence situations if they act on them. Workers are given their own personal responsibilities and are accountable for reaching certain targets. They get feedback on their performance, which allows them to adjust if necessary. The focus is on improving the quality of the systems and processes, not on finding errors made by the individual team members.
This approach is the opposite of the democratic style as the leader calls all the shots.
Nursing Leadership And Advocacy : Nursing
Decisions are made rapidly without any form of consultation with the staff. All the power is concentrated at the top, and individuals at the bottom can only follow. Knowledge may be kept in the hands of a few to keep the power within their ranks.
When mistakes happen, authoritarians make an example of the offenders by punishing them in front of their peers. The blame is always on the individuals despite faulty processes.